Within the meaning of space frame, we can find three systems clearly different between them:
Space plane covers: These spatial structures are composed of planar substructures. Their behavior is similar to that of a plate in which the deflections in the plane are channeled through the horizontal bars and the shear forces are supported by the diagonals.
Barrel vaults: This type of vault has a cross section of a simple arch. Usually this type of space frame does not need to use tetrahedral modules or pyramids as a part of its backing. Spherical domes and other compound curves usually require the use of tetrahedral modules or pyramids and additional support from a skin.
Classification by the arrangement of its elements
Single layer grid: All elements are located on the surface to be approximated.
Double layer grid: Elements are organized in two layers parallel to each other at a certain distance apart. Each of the layers form a lattice of triangles, squares or hexagons in which the projection of the nodes in a layer may overlap or be displaced relative to each other. Diagonal bars connect the nodes of both layers in different directions in space. In this type of meshes, the elements are associated into three groups: upper cordon, cordon and cordon lower diagonal.
Triple layer grid: Elements are placed in three parallel layers, linked by the diagonals. They are almost always flat.
Other examples classifiable as space frames are these:
Pleated metallic structures: Emerged to try to solve the problems that formwork and pouring concrete had their counterparts. Typically run with welded joint, but may raise prefabricated joints, a fact which makes them space meshes.
Hanging covers: Designs on the cable taut, spine, and the catenary arch antifunicular show their ability to channel forces theoretically better than any other alternative, have an infinite range of possibilities for composition and adaptability to any type of plant cover or ensure vain. However, imprecisions in shape having the loaded strand (ideally adapts dynamically to the state of charge)and the risk of bending the arc to unexpected stresses are problems that require pre-compression and prestressing elements. Although in most cases tend to be the cheapest and the technical solution that best fits the acoustics and ventilation of the covered enclosure, are vulnerable to vibration.
Pneumatic structures: Closure membranes subjected to a pressurized state may be considered within this group.
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